22/03/2020

THE VICTORIANS LOVED A FREAK SHOW...



The trade in human disability as a form of entertainment has been around for centuries, with physical 'curiosities' being displayed in circuses or travelling fairs. However, during the nineteenth century, such exhibits became so popular that permanent venues were set up. London had the Egyptian Hall. In New York there was P T Barnum's American Museum. 

The Victorians did love a freak show, and although today we may view such things as being sordid and exploitative, some of the performers were more than happy to be involved. Ironically enough, the 'protection' of the stage offered security and peace, whereas the real outside world could be a hostile and cruel environment. The acts could make good money too. By the late 1890’s some of the most successful could earn £20 a week – the equivalent of what would be well over £1000 today.





Most productions would depend on the skill of the manager or showman to draw in the paying crowds. Printed advertisements would help to stir up curiosity, although when witnessed in the flesh the wonders they proclaimed may well have led to disappointment.



The mermaid in this poster would actually have been created by the arts of the taxidermist. Rather than seeing a lovely woman, the audience would most probably be faced with the stuffed head of a monkey fixed to the body of a fish. 




Indeed there was quite a craze in the displays of these Feejee Mermaids, more of which you can discover in a precious blog post. You'll also find this monstrous freak being featured in the V V's Victorian gothic novel,  Elijah's Mermaid.



There were some acts that became so famous they needed little promotion. Chang and Eng were the Siamese twins linked at the chest by a thick band of skin.



Midgets were always a draw, sometimes appearing in groups or ‘troops’ in which they would dance and sing, or else perform as acrobats. One of the most famed of the little men was the American General Tom Thumb who travelled with P T Barnum’s show and who proved to be so popular he was invited to meet Queen Victoria.




Barnum and Tom Thumb



Miss Rosina was a favourite too. Appearing all over Europe, she was often welcomed into aristocratic and royal homes. Despite having no hands or fingers she managed to crotchet by using her feet, and was said to produce fine paintings by holding a brush between her lips.






For a wonderfully detailed view of this world the VV recommends John Woolf's The Wonders.





Below are more posters for freak shows which form part of a collection now held at the British Library.






















04/03/2020

MARIE LLOYD ~ THE ONE AND ONLY ~ THE QUEEN OF THE MUSIC HALLS...



Today there are many people who know nothing at all about Marie Lloyd - which shows how ephemeral fame can be, and how the years so often dim collective treasured memories. Because, in her time Miss Marie Lloyd was known as ‘The One and Only, The beloved Queen of the Music Halls '- famed at home, and internationally, and who, at the time of her funeral was mourned by 100,000 fans who lined the streets of London, even though they’d never met her.

I wish I could have met her. I think she could have told some tales when I wrote my first novel, The Somnambulist, which is based on a fictional family who live in the East End of London – and who have strong links to the music halls, in particular to Wilton’s, in the Wapping/Whitechapel area. Wilton's Hall still opens its doors to the public to this day, putting on shows, and also guided tours. If you happen to go there I’m sure you’ll agree that, despite the building’s state of decay, as soon as you enter its doors you feel as if you’ve travelled back in time ... right back to its Victorian heyday. You can almost hear the pop of champagne corks, the laughter and singing, the instruments playing. You can imagine the chandelier that once sparkled on mirrors around the walls. You can still see the cast iron barley twist pillars supporting the single balcony, and the glorious papier mache frieze that laps around its front – from which you could almost reach down with your arms to touch anyone on the stage below. That’s how intimate the venue is.




And why am I talking about Wilton's? Well, it’s simply because that music hall would not really have been all that different from the venues where Marie Lloyd performed at the very start of her career - so many of which no longer exist. I wanted to give you some idea of the setting and the atmosphere – with the costers and dockers, and West end swells who tipped top hats while ‘slumming it’ with the East End shop girls and prostitutes. Over the whistles, shouts and laughter, through the fug of cigar smoke and fumes of gas, and without the aid of a microphone (which is something we take for granted today) Marie Lloyd would have had very little more than her natural charisma and confidence with which to reach out to that audience. And to have them eating out of her hand.

I don’t think Marie sang at Wilton’s – with the doors of that hall having been closed for immoral behaviour and decadence at the time when a cheeky East End girl made her debut in The Grecian Hall - which was situated in Hoxton, and only a street or two away from where the future Queen of the Halls had been born and spent her childhood.

Born on February 12, 1870, she first lived at 36, Plumber Street (what is known as Provost Street today). Her father’s name was John ‘Brush’ Wood – Brush being a nickname that came about because he liked to be smartly dressed and always carried a clothes brush in his pocket. John was quite artistic too, employed in making artificial silk flowers. But he also boosted the family coffers by waiting on tables in halls and bars, of which there were very many around, with Hoxton being in the midst of the East End’s thriving theatrical world.

John’s wife was called Matilda, and she was a dressmaker by trade – with quite a talent for design – a talent inherited by her daughter, which came in useful later on when Marie often designed and made the costumes that she was to wear on stage. But here, I am running ahead of myself...


This photograph can be viewed in the National Portrait Gallery. Marie is seated in the middle, to the right of her mother.

Matilda Alice Victoria Wood – usually known as Tilley as a child – was one of eleven siblings, of whom nine survived to adulthood. A headstrong and determined girl, she spent far more time playing truant from school than studying behind a desk. She preferred to help her mother at home, looking after the younger family members, or organising singing games. Always dramatic by nature, she loved being the centre of attention – so much so that when still very young she often haunted the graveyards around her home attending the funerals of strangers where she wept and wailed so convincingly that every eye would turn her way. Eventually, her passion was more usefully directed into The Fairy Bell Minstrels, a family singing act. While Tilley’s brother Johnny sold programmes to advertise the events, she and her other siblings performed – decked up in the costumes their mother made while appearing at the Nile Street Sunday School, and the Blue Ribbon Gospel Temperance Mission (yet another name for the Hoxton Hall, when its ownership was more spiritual). Here the children sang lyrics that warned about the evils of alcohol, such as - Throw Down the Bottle and Never Drink Again...’ which proved to be somewhat ironic when considering Marie’s later years.

For then Marie was still Tilley, and Tilley’s only addiction was a burning ambition to go on the stage; an ambition encouraged by the fact that her mother’s sister once danced in halls – when Aunt Louisa would be transformed into the glamorous Madame Patti. Still, however stage-struck Tilley had been, encouraged by her hardworking and respectable parents who knew how uncertain and perilous a life on the stage could be, she managed to find employment in making shoes for babies, or curling feathers for dressing hats. But such employment did not last long before she was sacked by the factory foreman after climbing up onto the tables to sing and distract the other workers.

Tilley’s parents were very soon forced to agree that – in the words of their daughter later on: they couldn’t kick their objections as high as she could kick her legs! And so, John Wood arranged for her take a turn at the Grecian Hall, which was served by the Eagle Tavern – which was where he happened to be employed, with both buildings being part of the same complex, on the corner of Shepherdess Walk – where it adjoins the City Road, very near to Old Street Roundabout.




Was Tilley nervous that first night, when she performed as Matilda Wood, when, even with her father nearby to keep an eye on everything, we can only imagine the rush in her blood when she put on her costume while still at home and then made her way to the music hall. We know exactly what she wore. A figure hugging bodice, and a skirt to show her petticoats, and on her head a mantilla of lace to drape around her long blonde curls – through which shone blue eyes, and large white teeth in a face, not conventionally beautiful, but it did exude charisma. Tilley's personality set her apart when she stood on that stage to brave whatever cacophony might have been going on around her. We also know what she sang. A sentimental song entitled “In the Good Old Days” – which was probably rather slow and nostalgic for one so young. And that was swiftly followed by the ditty, My Soldier Laddie - after which she danced a jig!

That debut performance went so well that new invitations came rolling in for the singer who was now going under the name of Miss Bella Delamere. She appeared at various halls around, such as the Collins Islington – and the Hammersmith Temple of Varieties – and the Middlesex Hall in Drury Lane. And despite some early controversy, when Bella stole ballads from other stars and was threatened with legal injunctions, somehow she had the wit and nerve to carry on and escape the worst. Her great future was finally ensured when performing at Bethnal Green’s Sebright Hall, where she met the composer, George Ware. George  became her manager, and he also gifted her with a brand new stage name, after which she was known as Marie – Marie as in starry - which was thought to be more sophisticated, with the Ooh la la nuance of being French. The surname of Lloyd was said to have come from a copy of Lloyds Weekly Newspaper – though it could also have been the name on a box of matches close to hand.



George Ware’s greatest gift was to give his new protégé a song. One that had previously been performed by the singer, Nelly Power, but never with the same success as when the sixteen year old Marie performed The Boy I love at the Falstaff Hall on Old Street. After that night her star was lit and her rise was meteoric, with earnings soon so lucrative that she could afford to pay other composers to create unique material - the songs suiting her brazen, ad lib style such as Whacky Whack, and Tiggy Vous, and When you Wink the Other Eye – during which she would give what soon became Marie Lloyd’s trademark expression: a knowing smile and a cheeky wink, not to mention the high kicking dancing style designed to expose silk bloomers. The writer Compton Mackenzie who saw her perform when he was just a boy, said that he had been “amazed that any girl should have the courage to let the world see her drawers as definitely as Marie Lloyd.” Perhaps she had been singing these lyrics from The Tale of the Skirt – which went:

“By correct manipulation, she her figure can display,
And the ankles, and the, er, well, it’s hard to turn the eyes away...
And she murmurs ‘Saucy Monkey’ when a rude boy shouts, What ho!...”


Well, whatever they shouted, the eyes of all would have been wide in amazement during a London pantomime when, egged on by her co-star, Little Tich, Marie knelt down to pray by a bed and then added some improvisation by reaching underneath it, as if in search of a chamber pot. The audience thought that hilarious, though Augustus Harris, the director, insisted his star never do it again. But it was hard to restrain Marie’s character and natural ebullience. For that act and other 'vulgarities', such as the time when she struggled with a parasol and finally proclaimed, ‘Thank God, I haven’t had it up for months!’ – she offended many a prurient souls, even if what was deemed outrageous then would be viewed as mild innuendo now.




Laura Ormiston Chant, a sort of Mary Whitehouse figure of the times, became so shocked and scandalised that she successfully campaigned to have Marie Lloyd hauled up before the Theatre’s Vigilance Committee; specifically in relation to the scatological inferences in the lyrics of her popular song: ‘I sits among the cabbages and peas'. 

That song alluded to outside lavatories which were built at the bottom of gardens, and where – as the lyrics quaintly describe – a young woman, “sits and shells with ease. Till the pretty little peapot’s full of peas." Imagine singing that too fast, and how sits and shells might get confused! But, Marie was clever and worked her charm, offering to change the words around to cabbages and leeks instead – which really was taking the ...

Well, I think you must see what I mean but while still up before the Committee, Marie sang, ‘Oh, Mr Porter!’ (A song about going too far on a train – and too far in other ways as well) – and “A Little of what you fancy does you good’ - and both performed so coyly and demurely that no-one could find a thing to condemn. And, finally, in an act of defiance she sang the lyrics of Tennyson’s poem, ‘Come into the Garden Maud’ with such a carnal knowing air at every utterance of ‘come’ that all who were. present were stunned into silence. But Marie Lloyd had made her point. Obscenity was all in the mind.

Marie's career could not be stopped by Orniston Chant, or anyone else. Rather than being banned from the stage, she went on to receive such rave reviews as this one from Black and White Magazine when, at the age of 29, Marie had the starring role in the Pantomime, Dick Whittington:


Firstly, Miss Marie Lloyd is the Dick, and a better Dick, a more kindhearted, jolly young blade you will not find in London Town this season. Apart from her natural gift of jollity, which no one can deny, Miss Lloyd has serious claims to be considered an artist. I fancy some of my superior readers lifting their eyebrows and exclaiming: "What! Marie Lloyd an artist!" Yes, indeed! If you have one scrap of appreciation for art in your soul...you roar when she sings and winks that roguish eye of hers: you roar so heartily that you forget to ask why you roar and how she makes you roar. Her songs are often, alas! mere badly rhymed strings of inanities, her speeches silly punning "lengths," but it is not exactly what she says, it's the clever way she says it, that brings an audience to her feet. She knows when to be restrained, when to be ebullient; she may be vulgar at times, but she is always humorous...and she has the faculty of captivating her audience by talking and singing to them - taking them into her confidence - rather than at them. Then she can make her brilliant white teeth flash on you so suddenly that you are dazzled; her wink tickles you; her smile warms you; her chuckle rouses you to responsive merriment. But it is useless trying to set down in the space of a half-column the multifarious delights of Miss Lloyd's art. She is great, and she must be seen to be appreciated. You go doubting – you come away her slave.


This view was shared by 'superior souls' such as T S Elliot who insisted that Miss Marie Lloyd “had the capacity for expressing the soul of the people - which made her something quite unique.”

Well, Marie was certainly unique, unashamedly singing her risque songs, all delivered with guts and gusto – and her fans far less prudish than we might suppose, for they liked nothing more than to have some fun. And Marie dished out the fun in spades – truly leaving the audience her slaves.

But, for every conquest made from the stage during the height of her career, Marie’s love life was never such a success. 

She was first married at seventeen, when her private life might have mirrored her act, when she might have gazed up at the balcony while singing the words of this famous song:

“The boy I love is up in the gallery,
The boy I love is looking now at me,
There he is, can’t you see, waving his handkerchief, 
As merry as a robin that sings on a tree.”

The boy who gazed back at Marie was most likely her brother, Johnny, who, at that cue would smile down and wave his handkerchief about. But I like to think that, now and then, it would have been Percy Courtenay, the silver-tongued Stage Door Johnny, and race course ticket tout, of whom we know little more; except that he hailed from Streatham, and managed to steal Marie’s heart – and also her virginity.

A baby daughter, Myria, was born six months after the wedding day. The newly weds had a marital home in two rooms in a house in Arlington Square, which is just off the New North Road. But this was far from a dream come true. Marie’s pregnancy left her shell-shocked, fearing her career was lost. And she also discovered she’d married a drunkard; a man who frequently gambled their money, and was jealous of his wife’s success. He resented her friendships with theatre friends, such as Dan Leno, and Little Tich, Lottie Collins and Albert Chevalier – the friends who, along with her large family, were welcomed at any time of day, with their home more like an informal hotel. The rift between Marie and Percy was soon irreparable. She exhausted herself with theatre work, throwing herself into pantomimes which were lucrative and near to home, but physically demanding with the runs going on for months on end. So, perhaps it is little wonder that Marie’s second pregnancy resulted in a miscarriage.

Marie was only nineteen years old, but she was determined to carry on. And carry on she did with style. At The Empire, The Alhambra in Leicester Square, The Trocadero off Shaftsbury Avenue, and the Royal Standard in Victoria. It was during the pantomime, Little Bo Beep, that Percy Courtenay – entirely drunk – broke into her Drury Lane dressing room and attempted to slash at his wife’s throat with a sword used as one of the stage props. There was also another occasion when he beat her with a walking stick, screaming in the street for all to hear, ‘I will gouge your eyes out and ruin you!’ 

Enough was enough. Marie left their home to embark on a tour of America, and when she returned to England again a restraining order was enforced to prevent her husband coming anywhere near – by which time she was otherwise involved with the singer, Alec Hurley.

Alec Hurley was a gentle bear of a man who’d been raised just a mile or two from Marie’s own Hoxton family home. Solid, and dependable, the ex-costerman and tea store clerk was often to share his lover’s stage when, during a ten year courtship, the handsome ‘cockney couple’ travelled as far as America, Australia, and South Africa. They shared many other interests – such as their trips to the races, for which they kept houseboats on the Thames, to be nearer to their favourite tracks. Sunbeam was used during the day, and Moonbeam in the evenings, and there was much talk of their owners often ending up in the river too when a meet had gone particularly well. They shared a home in Hampstead, but never forgot their East End friends - proud of being working class right down to their very bootstraps. They showed great support and gave monetary aid when the Amalgamated Musicians Union went on strike for fairer pay; when Alex Hurley and Marie helped to fund the Music Hall War of 1907 – all just a year after they married, when Marie’s divorce at last came through.




By then there were wars at home as well, and the lyrics that Alec was famous for, ‘I aint nobody in perticuler,’ reflected the fact that many now addressed him as Mr Marie Lloyd – or the star who had married a planet. And when on the verge of bankruptcy, due to gambling and failed business interests, Marie upped and left all their troubles behind for a new and passionate affair – this time with a jockey, half her age!

She left Alec – some say - when he needed her most, and moved to a house in Golders Green to live with Bernard Dillon, who was famous for his Derby wins, as well as the 1000 Guineas stakes. The young man was also known in the halls, lauded as a sporting pin up who appeared inVanity Fair. But Dillon was also infamous as a drinking, bullying, gambling man, who’d lost his riding license when involved in a betting scandal.

This new relationship was doomed, just as the other two had been, with Dillon resenting the fact that his fame was eclipsed by his wife’s flamboyant charm. More scurrilous members of the press wrote of their troubled private life, and perhaps this affected her public persona when, in 1912, she was not asked to play a part in the very first Royal Command Performance. Some said that was due to her scandalous life, some to her crude performing style, and others because of her politics – because of the enemies she’d made amongst the theatre managements when supporting the musician’s strike. Whatever the reason for the slight, Marie – though inwardly furious – refused to be cast aside, performing herself on the very same night where the London Pavilion posters announced: Marie Lloyd, Queen of the halls; with placards outside the theatre proclaiming: “Every performance by Marie Lloyd is a command performance – by command of the British public!’

It was a great success, but the gossiping press had a field day again, and worse was to come when the couple embarked on a trip to tour America – when before they’d even left the ship, someone informed the authorities that, although they’d shared a cabin on board the SS Olympic, she and Dillon were not wed. When detained as ‘Undesirables’, and accused of ‘moral turpitude’, the farce was only to carry on when Dillon was arrested on charges of importing Lloyd as a product of the white slave trade! The affair may seem almost laughable now, but Marie was at the end of her tether and later admitted she’d never forget ‘the humiliation to which I have been subjected ...I shall never sing in America again, no matter how high the salary offered.’

I wonder if that humiliation was made worse by the fact that her sister, Alice (who had also followed a singing career, as many of her siblings did), was far more popular in New York. By contrast, when Marie’s tour went ahead, even though she played to packed houses some reviews were very cruel. Her pride was hurt, and her guard was down, and perhaps she was trying to hide her pain when the news came from England that Hurley had died of pleurisy and pneumonia. He was only 42 year old, and – according to many friends, still professing his love for her up till the end – whereas she responded with the words: “with all due respect to the dead, I can cheerfully say that’s the best piece of news I’ve heard in many years, for it means that Bernard Dillon and I will marry as soon as this unlucky year ends.”

Bernard Dillon brought no luck. The man who Marie then legally wed at the British Consulate in Portland, Oregon, in the February of 1914 was trouble from the start. At least when back in England, nearer to friends and family, Marie felt on safer ground and resumed some provincial tours. And then, in 1915, at the age of 45, she was rolling up her sleeves and involved in the First World War Effort. She travelled around the country to visit hospitals and factories, entertaining the frontline troops with songs like, ‘Now You’ve Got your Khaki on’. That particular hit was performed to 10,000 men in the Crystal Palace in South London. And what a show it must have been, with so many cheering her on.

But Dillon was less supportive. He had joined the army too, but then spent every moment trying to leave, either claiming to be too obese to be fit for army life, or that he was needed to go and care for his family back in Ireland. His behaviour was often shameless, such as on the occasion when Marie came home to find her husband in her bed, making love to another woman. She also endured many beatings when Dillon was out of his wits with drink, soon becoming so commonplace that the police had to intervene. Dillon was eventually sentenced to work a month’s hard labour. But, only after he assaulted Marie's father – with John by then being very old and frail – did Marie make a final break.

Emotionally and physically she was a wreck, often drinking to ease her woes. And yet she still achieved success with ‘My Old Man Said Follow the Van', when she stood on the stage in a costume of rags and carried a bird cage in one hand to show the plight of the homeless poor - those forced to do a midnight flit when they hadn’t the money to pay the rent.

Ironically, as so often before, this song was to mirror Marie’s life. Not that she was homeless as such, but she was always travelling about, and despite having earned what were then vast sums – as much as £11,000 a year – her handouts to husbands, family, and friends, meant that she ended up in debt.




My Old Man - sung by Jessie Wallace, from the BBC dramatisation of the life of Marie Lloyd


Forced to sell the marital home, she went to live in Woodstock Road, in a house in Golders Green owned by her sister, Daisy, and a place on which Bernard Dillon could have no monetary claim. Still, it was hard to make a new start. Marie was being side-lined by more popular music hall acts. Caught in a downward spiral of grief, the woman who’d reached her half century was no longer so young or resilient. She became less and less reliable, often not showing up for work, as illustrated by the night when she'd been booked for the London Palladian and instead of walking onto the stage she stayed at home to make her will; and to write her husband out of it.

Her act was also unpredictable. She often stumbled into the scenery, or was supported by the hand of someone behind the stage curtain. Many times the performance would be curtailed, such as on the night in Cardiff when she lasted only six minutes before heading back to her dressing room. There was also the occasion when she was cruelly described by Virginia Woolf who saw her act at Camden’s Bedford Hall and later on would write about: “A mass of corruption – long front teeth – a crapulous way of saying 'desire', – scarcely able to walk, waddling, aged, unblushing...”

A shadow of her former self, Marie’s frame became shrunken and her face so drawn that some said she looked like a man in drag. Severely blackened teeth may well have been the proof that she’d attempted to use mercury to contain the symptoms of syphilis, caught from her promiscuous husband. When on the stage of the London Alhambra she sang with a greatly weakened voice, “It's a bit of a ruin that Cromwell knocked about a bit”, and then collapsed onto the boards as if in a drunken stupor. The audience roared with laughter, thinking it was a part of the act, when all along Marie Lloyd was dying before their very eyes. Three days later, at the age of just 52, exhausted and ravaged by alcohol Marie Lloyd was pronounced as dead, with the death certificate describing - Mitral regurgitation, 14 months. Nephritis, 14 months. Uraemic coma, 3 days. In short, heart and kidney failure. She must have suffered terribly, but she never wanted pity. Right until the very end she preferred to put a brave face on things, saying: “Let them think I died of good living – don’t leave them crying.”

This sentiment was then echoed by the words inscribed on her gravestone:

Tired she was, although she didn’t show it, 
Suffering she was, and hoped we didn’t know it, 
But He above – and understanding all, 
Prescribed “long rest, and gave the final call.




Marie Lloyd's funeral procession - the funeral was conducted by A. France & Son Funeral Directors

But, Marie did leave them crying, and she still had one more performance to make, which was to be her funeral. Her audience was larger than ever in life, with 100,000 of her fans coming out to line the London roads on Thursday, October 12, in the year of 1922. T S Elliot was so distraught that he wrote an open letter saying he would not be attending any literary events for the next two months. Max Beerbohm, the famous essayist wrote that London had not seen such a funeral since the death of the Duke of Wellington. Today, we can only compare those scenes with the intense outpourings of grief that were shown for Diana, The Princess of Wales, when so many people had the sense that this was a woman who’d touched their hearts; that they’d lost a personal friend.

Mourners came from near and far. Huge crowds gathered in Woodstock Road. Old Kate, a race card seller, had walked the 75 miles from Newmarket. An empty floral birdcage was to signify that in ‘My Old Man...” but there was no hope of the hundreds of tributes sent being able to fit on the coffin lid – a coffin so small that none could believe it contained the great Marie Lloyd. The hearse left the house at 11am, topped with Marie’s old stage prop, of an ebony cane wreathed in orchids. At the cemetery in West Hampstead, mourners stood twelve deep around the grave, and the cemetery gates had to be closed before the internment could take place.

So many wept that autumn day for a woman they said could not be replaced. Whether or not she ever was, the music hall era was now in its twilight. The crowds who had once filled them were now keener on dance halls and jazz. They flocked in their droves to cinemas for the cult of silent film. And after the horrors of World War 2, many more stayed at home with their TV sets, on which they may well have watched nostalgic programmes about the halls, such as the The Good Old Days –  with that title being an echo of Marie's first song in the Grecian Hall.





The BBC's 2007 dramatisation of the life of Marie Lloyd which stars Jessie Wallace is available to buy here, or various clips can be searched for and viewed on Youtube.


Finally, if you would like to read more about the life of Marie Lloyd, there is much to be found online, and the VV also recommends these sources -

Midge Gillies's biography Marie Lloyd: The One and Only, published by Orion. This may no longer be in print, but the VV did manage to find a copy on Amazon Marketplace.

There were biographies by Naomi Jacobs and Walter Macqueen-Pope, who published their personal reminiscences concerning Marie Lloyd's earlier years 

Daniel Farson has written about the violence in Marie's life - particularly in respect to the behaviour of Bernard Dillon during her final years.

Richard Anthony Baker, a writer and presenter with BBC radio, has drawn on contemporary press accounts regarding the life of Marie Lloyd. Marie Lloyd: Queen of the Music-halls was published by Hale in 1990

22/12/2019

SANTA CLAUS IS COMING TO TOWN...

Winking Santa by Essie Fox



The VV has found her old box of watercolour paints and created this greetings card of Santa Claus to say thank you and to wish a very Happy Christmas to each and every one of you who follow The Virtual Victorian blog.

While painting she started to ponder on how odd it is that, before Queen Victoria came to throne in 1837 there were no commercial Christmas cards – that tradition only beginning in 1843, after the introduction of the Penny Post, when Sir Henry Cole had the bright idea of printing up thousands of images and selling them in his London shop, priced at just one shilling each. 

What an industry that enterprise began!


The design for Sir Henry Cole's commercial Christmas card


But, as far as jolly santas go, very few people in England then would even so much as know his name. And yet, by 1870 most every child would have been aware of the magical sleigh drawn by reindeer, and a stocking full of precious gifts - if only an orange to signify a gift from Father Christmas.

The names Santa Claus, and Father Christmas have become somewhat interchangeable. But their origins are quite different.


Father Christmas, on whom Charles Dickens based his Christmas Present was derived from an old English festival when Sir Christmas, or Old Father Christmas, or Old Winter, was depicted as wearing green; a sign of fertility and the coming spring – which is why many homes were decorated with mistletoe, holly and ivy. He did not bring gifts or climb down the chimneys, but wandered instead from home to home feasting with the families and bringing good cheer to one and all - as described in the mediaeval carol printed below this illustration...

Illustration by John Leech from Dickens' A Christmas Carol


Goday, goday, my lord Sire Christemas, goday!
Goday, Sire Christemas, our king,
For ev’ry man, both old and ying,
Is glad and blithe of your coming;
Goday! 


Imagine the goblets being raised with the cheering rendition of 'Goday!


The image of Christmas Present which we are more familiar with today – Santa Claus or Saint Nicholas – arrived in America in the seventeenth century when Dutch settlers imported their own Sinter Klass. And it was there in 1822 that Clement Clare Moore wrote a poem to delight his little children, which still has an enduring influence -


He was dressed all in fur from his head to his foot,
And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;
A bundle of toys he had flung on his back,
And he looked like a peddler just opening his sack.
His eyes how they twinkled! His dimpled how merry!
His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry;
His droll little mouth was drawn up in a bow,
And the beard on his chin was as white as the snow.
The stump of a pipe he held tight in his teeth,
And the smoke it encircled his head like a wreath.
He had a broad face, and a little round belly
That shook when he laughed like a bowl fully of jelly.
He was chubby and plump, - a right jolly old elf –
And I laughed when I saw him, in spite of myself.


A Visit from Saint Nicholas (now more popularly known as The Night Before Christmas) described the old man’s appearance – the very image that every child has come to know and love today. It is so beautifully shown in this woodblock print designed by the artist Thomas Nast, who based the illustrations on his childhood in Germany.


 Santa and his works by Thomas Nast, published in Harper's Weekly Magazine in 1866


Merry Christmas! Ho Ho Ho!

08/12/2019

MR BENTLEY'S MAGICAL ICE CRYSTALS



As Christmas is drawing nearer, the VV has been thinking about the photographs of snow flakes made by Wilson Alwyn Bentley.




Born in 1865, 'Snowflake Bentley' was raised on the family farm in Jericho in the American state of Vermont where the annual depth of snowfall could be as much as 120 inches.

From childhood he was said to be fascinated by the natural world. At the age of fifteen his mother gave him the gift of a microscope. Bentley went on to become captivated by the close-up views of snow crystals, which he placed on a black velvet base so as to see them all the more clearly. But, to try and preserve the sights he saw – with the ice flakes often melting before he could try and sketch them – he set his mind on finding a method of attaching a camera to the microscope (now known as Photomicography). From that point on he was able to compile a unique collection of work which is still, to this very today, considered as remarkable.




Describing his snowflake photographs as "ice flowers" or “tiny miracles of beauty”, he produced more than 5,000 of these ephemeral works of art. In turn, these astonishing images were sought by the Harvard Mineralogical Museum and the University of Vermont.

Today, his photographs are held by academic institutions all over the world. The Smithsonian (to whom Bentley sent 500 prints in 1903, in the hope that they would be preserved for the sake of posterity), now has a comprehensive record in their institution archives.




It is something of an irony that Bentley died from pneumonia, having been stranded and lost one day in a terrible blizzard of snow.








However, before his death he was able to see a book of his prints published by McGraw Hill. That book, produced in various forms, is still available to this day.

Here is a short film about The Snowflake Man ...




01/12/2019

THE MARGATE SHELL GROTTO...



In 1835, while attempting to dig a duck pond, a man named James Newlove and his son Joshua discovered a peculiar hole in the ground. When Joshua crept down inside it, he discovered over 70 feet of winding passages, at the end of which he found the most wonderful subterranean shell grotto



All of the walls were covered in an exquisite tapestry of shells, since found to have been stuck there with an adhesive that is based on gypsum and volcanic elements. Over four million cockle, whelk, mussel and oyster shells form various patterns of mosaics. There are images of the Tree of Life, phalluses, gods and goddesses. Some say they can see the horns or a ram, and a three-pointed star; also representations of the sun and the moon.
Mr Newlove soon decided to tap into the commercial potential of such a dramatic find. By 1837, the first fee-paying visitors arrived – and with them the debate commenced as to origin of the caves. 

One idea was that it had once been an ancient pagan temple. Another, that it provided the home for a secret sect. Other people were entirely convinced that  it must be a Regency folly.  

However, such follies were usually built on wealthy estates, whereas Mr Newlove’s grotto was built underneath common farmland. And then, there is also the fact that had the grotto been constructed during the 1700’s then surely some record or map would remain – not least with regard to the enormous industry involved in excavating the passages and creating the shell mosaics. And yet, there is no local knowledge regarding the grotto’s creation or existence.



In 1999 English Heritage commissioned an investigation. The conclusion was that the grotto was unlikely to have been built during the Regency or Victorian period. Carbon dating was attempted, but failed to give a clear result owing to the build up of soot on the shells after oil lamps were used to illuminate the passages during Mr Newlove's tours. 

Later, in 2001, Mick Twyman of the Margate Historical Society also attempted to unravel the enigma. He observed that just before the arrival of each spring equinox, the sun enters the underground realm through a dome with a circular opening that acts like a pinhole camera. As the seasons turn, the ball of light reflected on the temple walls grows larger and continues to move over certain ‘lines’ or bars in the shells, as if with a solar calendar. At midday on the summer solstice, the light resembles an egg that glows in the belly of a mosaic snake. At this point in time, it is reflected up into square apertures built above the grotto’s three distinct passages. The light is then bounced down to shine on what is presumed to be an altar built within the 'temple' chamber. 

By the use of these phenomena and complex mathematical calculations Twyman was able to show that, allowing for the ‘creep’ of 1% in the Equinox angle that occurs every 72 years, the construction date for the grotto would have been around 1141 AD.



The following is an extract from an article Twyman wrote, linking the shell temple to the Knights Templar, claiming that it would have been used for Masonic rituals –

with a keystone over the entrance arch and its altar having everything required for Royal Arch Masonry...while mosaic design centres cleverly supply the basis for Masonic symbols, such as the Compass and Square, Star of David, Pentagram and Hardoian Tetrahedron, a symbol of great significance to the Templars and Cabbalists. ..There are also four panels which have above them the ancient God symbol of the three rays of heavenly light. Beneath one of these sits the Pleiades constellation, while the second has a Tree of Jesse surmounted by a tiny rose – another symbol of the virgin – and the third an ‘x’, which I believe to be the cross isolated from the banner of the Paschal Lamb, symbol of the Baptist.'



Whatever you think about the grotto and the mystery of its origins, the fascinating research goes on and. Meanwhile, the Grotto has been given a Grade 1 listed building status, and although it remains in private hands it can still be visited today.
More information can be found on the Grotto's official website.


For more posts on the Margate Shell Grotto, please see ...

ELIJAH'S MERMAID IN THE GROTTO...


21/10/2019

PRE-RAPHAELITE SISTERS ~ NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY




Fanny Eaton 1835-1911
Portrait by Dante Gabriel Rosetti



One of the most interesting things about the current exhibition of Pre-Raphaelite Sisters at the National Portrait Gallery are the images relating to the model, Fanny Eaton.


Portrait by Walter Fryer Stocks around 1859



Fanny was born in Jamaica's St Andrew Parish in 1835. Her mother, Matilda, was said to be a slave, but her father was never named. She became involved with the Pre-Raphaelite circle between 1859 and 1867 by which time she was living in London's Shoreditch, and had married the cabbie, James Eaton. In-between the drudgery of raising their ten children and working as a domestic servant, Fanny had another means of support – posing as an artists' model at the Royal Academy.


 
The Mother of Moses, by Simeon Solomon



After featuring in Simeon Solomon's famous painting, The Mother of Moses, she drew the attention of other artists in the PRB circle, including Millais and Dante Gabriel Rosetti. Despite racial prejudices of the times, Fanny was described by Rosetti as having 'a very fine head' and being of 'incomparable beauty'. With her grace, waving hair, and strong profile, she is not that unlike his lover and muse, Jane Morris.


Fanny Eaton in Millais' painting Jephthah - in the yellow hood on the right


Sadly, her allure did not bring wealth or fame. She spent her later years working as a cook on the Isle of Wight, eventually dying of old age and 'senility' in 1911, in a daughter's home in Acton. But her face, her grace, and beauty still live on in many paintings, and not only as the token exotic in the scenes, but often as the main character.

Perhaps of all the paintings of Fanny in this exhibition the one below might be a favourite. Fittingly it was created by one of the 'sisters'. It is the elegant study by Joanna Boyce Wells' in preparation for the never to be realised painting based on a Libyan sibyl.




Study by Joanna Boyce Wells, 






The Pre-Raphaelite Sisters exhibition is currently at the National Portrait Gallery, from 17 October 2019 to 26 January 2020